National Medal

The three specialists, with a solid scientific training, developed a teaching and research task throughout his career that allowed them to devote to the study of particles and advances in the understanding of nature and the universe. Yoichiro Nambu, naturalized American, was born in 1921 in Tokyo and was formed at the University of the Japanese capital. He is currently Professor Emeritus at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago. The physicist is considered a leading figure in the development of particle physics modern with a very advanced thinking for its time. It excited much advertisement that was awarded today the Nobel Prize in physics, said the investigator, 87 years, after pose is the coronation. The numerous awards he received include Dannie Heinemann Prize, in 1970, the Oppenheimer Award, in 1976, the National Medal of science, in 1982, the Max Planck medal in 1985, and the 1994/5 Wolf Prize. By its part, the physicist Kobayashi said, upon learning of the award, which was a big surprise, and added: I don’t know what should I say.

Did not expect the prize indicated, at the time that admitted that he was in shock. Kobayashi was born in 1944 in Nagoya, Japan, where he was at the University. He is Professor Emeritus in the Organization of research accelerators of high energy (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan. Maskawa is the Japanese island of Honsh and was born in 1940. She studied physics and received his doctorate at the University of Nagoya; then moved to Kyoto University where he developed, together with Kobayashi theory on the asymmetries of the physics of particles which were today the Nobel Prize. After working between 1976 and 1980 at the Institute of nuclear research of the University of Tokyo, Maskawa returned to Kyoto.

There he took up a professorship at the Yukawa Institute for theoretical physics and subsequently, between 1997 and 2003, he was director of esa institution. Since 2003 he is Professor Emeritus at the Institute of physics theoretical (YITP) of Kyoto University. The fact that our world does not behave in a way perfectly symmetrically is due to deviations from symmetry at the microscopic level, the Royal Academy said today in the communique that announced the names of the three winners. In the early 1970s, Yoichiro Nambu formulated his mathematical description of the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of symmetry in sub-Atomic particles, continues the text and adds that spontaneous symmetry breaking hides the order of nature under a seemingly rumpled surface. The Agency requires that the standard model unifies the smallest fragments of matter under a single theory and three of the four fundamental forces of nature, stresses. For its part, spontaneous symmetries studied by Nambu ruptures differs from the described by Kobayashi and Mashkawa, said the statement. The two Japanese researchers explained the symmetry breaking within the framework of the standard model but required that the model was extended to three families of quarks (one of the constituent elements of matter), adds.