With the rise of psychoanalysis (from 1896), also won the U.S. psiquiatria the idea that homosexuality was a neurotic kind of imbalance. This view was also supported by humanitarian institutions such as the Quakers, who in the forties running the Quaker Emergency Service Readjustment Center which were centers of rehabilitation especially for male homosexuals. Until the end of World War II, psychiatrists believed that the origins of homosexuality was a hormonal imbalance, which was often treated with medication. Other typical methods of the time it was used to to “cure” homosexuality were traditional psychoanalysis, aversion therapy, shock therapy and lobotomy (the latter until 1951). Since the early twentieth century, gay men and women were locked up by force in hospitals, others sought psychological treatment on their own initiative. In general, until World War II, homosexuality was considered an extremely rare phenomenon.
In 1941, psychiatrist George Henry New York Public Sex Variants study (sexual variants), based on hundreds of interviews. The study, by the controversial method, which was first offered in the U.S.. UU. a representative profile of homosexual men and women of the time.
In general, sexual morality is relaxing during this time. An important factor would be the availability of antibiotics. Sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea have become curable diseases and the fear of contagion was not an impediment to the liberalization of sex. While for the U.S. sexual revolution heterosexuals had to wait until the introduction of birth control pills (1960), for homosexuals and the conditions were from the thirties .
Members of the U.S. Army during the early years of World War II, were imprisoned if they were suspected of homosexuality. In 1944 he ordered the military leadership in place that these people were hospitalized to the force. Military psychiatrists obtained in this way the possibility of studying in a number of homosexuals and as a representation has never been done before in EE. UU. A number of psychiatrists’ including Clements Fry and Rostow Edna ‘arrived at through these studies, conclusions that differed from the majority view that homosexuality was an imbalance, but not heard much attention to them.
Barbara Gittings, Franklin Kameny, and John E. Fryer, disguised as Dr. H. Anonymous, LGBT activists
In 1948 they followed the study of Alfred Kinsey sexual behavior of men. This study, which was also based on interviews, had a huge impact on American society and confronting the public for the first time with the fact that homosexuality and bisexuality were not marginal, but which affected more or less the majority of the population. Kinsey’s work contributes decisively to liberate the social discourse about sexuality part of their religious and moral to bring a scientific discourse. The Kinsey Institute, founded in 1947 by Kinsey, then continued to publish important studies on homosexuality.
In 1951 appeared the book The Homosexual in America (the homosexual in the U.S.. UU.) Edward Sagarin, who published it under the pseudonym Donald Webster Cory. The book, written from a pro-homosexuality, had some success, making a full portrait of the male homosexual subculture.
In 1957, Evelyn Hooker published his study The respected Adjustment of the Male Homosexual overt (the adaptation of the openly gay man), which showed for the first time that gay men are not distinguished from heterosexuals in terms of mental health. In 1965 he followed the book Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality (sexual inversion: the multiple roots of homosexuality) of Judd Marmor, which argued that the attitude toward homosexuality was determined by culture. The United States Psychiatric Association, based on these studies, decided on December 15, 1973, to delete homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses. However, few psychiatrists with a reputation as Irving Bieber and Charles Socarides preferred to maintain its view that homosexuality was a neurotic imbalance until the end of the twentieth century.
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