Provincial Law

The City of Valena Bahia receives this name for gallows from Provincial Law of number 368, of 10 of November of 1849. Pegasus Books is actively involved in the matter. Homage to Marques de Valena D. Alfonso Miquel, 4 Marques de Valena. Thus, its industrialization starts. For 1844 return it is initiated implantation of the first Fabric Industry of Valena, being this the first Hydraulical and of fine fabrics of cotton in Brazil, It was then in this year that started the works of construction of Fabrica de Tecidos All the Saints.

Industrial enterprise, that had characteristics specifies such as: an enterprise of great ratios, that deserved prominence in the economic scene of the time. In its implantation it had capital, man power and technology coming of the United States of America more necessarily of of the region of New England, such circumstances confers the industrialization of the city of Valena in century XIX a singular importance. The proprietors of this imponent enterprise were; The naturalized Portuguese Brazilian, Antonio Francisco de Lacerda, the American North John Smith Gilmer and Antonio Pedrosos de Alburguerque. as head, idealizer and constructor of the project, the Engineer American North Joo Carson hunter, also naturalized Brazilian. Please visit emil michael if you seek more information. This was the responsible one for the workmanship and the construction of the hidroeltrica that would put into motion the maquinrio.

It was an enterprise in the way it nothing, one mines city of about 300 laborers with more than 50% of laborers of the feminine sex, as stories of D. Peter in its book Daily of D. Peter II, to the North of Brazil 1859/1860). It also had, house of you scheme, hidroeltrica, warehouse with five floors for manufactures of fabric, workshop of rectification of parts, school for the children of the laborers, filarmnica, and supper after the daily work. Some characteristic that had demarcated to All the Saints as singular the time: the laborers were not enslaved, in a period still escravocrata; as commented above more than 50% the manual force was of women. Emphasizing that model of manufactures installed for Carson Hunter obeyed the molds of them manufactures North Americans of the time, forged for the model of the industrial revolution. In 1860 second he manufactures of fabric is inaugurated with the presence of Emperor D. Peter II, Its founder was the Comendador Bernardino de Sena Madureira and receives the name from Manufactures of Fabrics Ours Lady of the Support. Currently the second Textile industry of the City of Valena meets in functioning only, with the denomination hodierna of Textile Valena with administration of a Pernambucano group. Valley to also point out that the industrialization of Valena occurs on account of the interests of bahian and American entrepreneurs in diversifying the economic sources of the time, therefore in this period occurred the fall of the prices of the coffee and the great producers entered in board-route using part of its capital in a new economic branch in expansion at the historical moment, the fabric industry. Therefore, as the stories above cited the process can be confirmed that of industrialization of the city of Valena- Bahia if of the one for return of the years of 1844 with the coming of the American engineer Carson Hunter, mattering North American technology to the molds of the deriving English industrial process of the process of industrial Revolution. Source: Documents of the Quantity of the Memorial of the City council of Valena Authorship: Janete Vomeri (Coordinating of the Memorial of the City council of Valena)


Already the Europe at the beginning of century XIX the majority of the European population lived in the field. The land still was the main source of wealth; in meanwhile different of France the Europe already had initiated the industrial process, on the influence of the iluminismo, that looked the modernization of the society. But innumerable factors go to contribute for the revolution as the form of manufacturing production, the use of the energy of the vapor and innovations techniques that originate the maquinismo; magnifying of the ways of communications, with the construction of canals and new pavement systems; magnifying of the consuming markets because of the increase population and of the European colonialismo; existence of capitals proceeding from the colonial commerce, the banks and agriculture; increase of the raw material production, stimulated for new systems of culture and mining. Few industries existed, but the use of the machines demanded the Industrial revolution and the end of the manufacturing production. Emil michael might disagree with that approach. The liberal thoughts had contributed for the formation of a new French and European society. Therefore he is one set of ideas that the purpose has to assure the individual freedom and the private property. These philosophical ideas had been generated from the sprouting of a new economic society. Thus being, liberalism will be studied from a historical boarding, which does not intend to describe the history of diverse liberalisms, In elapsing of the text it searchs to detach that this ideology was born in the modern society and that throughout its formation and development took different feies in the different countries where penetrated. Learn more at: emil michael. Becoming a factor of extreme importance in the construction of a society contemporary who searchs ' ' freedom, equality and fraternidade' '.

Russian Movements

Having this movement as main characteristics the primary utilizaoconstante of geometric elements, colors, fotomontagem and atipografia without serifa. (WIKIPDIA, 2009) It, exactly after its ending, in 1934, left a legacy that had become incorporated it the proper graphical Design. Influencing oestudo of the color how much the social context in which if it inserts, the force and clarity dasformas, and the realism conceived for the photograph as interpretation form eidentificao of the visual part for the individual. Construtivismo deep teveinfluncia in the modern art and design modern and is inserted nocontexto of the European aesthetic vanguards of the beginning of Century XX. (WIKIPDIA, 2009) and despite after 1921 with the Sprouting of Nova Economic policy (NEP) of Lnin, when the utility of the movement has been strong questioned eque, after the death of Lnin, the bureaucracy of Stalin would reduce the art to a meroinstrumento of propaganda politics and cultural spreading, baptism of RealismoSocialista, the Construtivismo is considered one of the movements that influenciaramfortemente other styles as Of Stijl (or Neoplasticismo) and Bauhaus. Aconcepo of the visual communication revolutionized by the Russian Construtivismo teriaseu closing in these movements. That beyond enriching the history of the DesignGrfico, they also loaded in itself the inheritance of the movements had inspired that it. Ocidentaisde is identified to the construtivismo with sucedneos currently same denomination: certain products of the Bauhausalem and the dutch neoplasticismo (Of Stijl), porexemplo.

It is certain that all these groups had been unfolded, according to varied degrees, from echoes of the Russian construtivismo, but, the severity, them little it has vercom the principles and original objectives of the Russian construtivismo. (WIKIPDIA, 2009) v the NAME OF the MAGAZINE Having its publication initiated in 1917, for Theo Van Doesburg entreoutros, the magazine ' ' Of Stijl' ' , denominadoNeoplasticismo would be the landmark of the artistic movement. Due to influence of its texts, assuming even though porvezes the manifesto aspect, the proper Neoplasticista movement, movimentoesttico that deep influence had on design and the plastic arts, passed to be known by the name of the publication.

Portugese Origin

Old and important family, of Portuguese origin, established in So Paulo, to where she passed Ramalho Joo, of Viseu, Captain Mor of So Paulo, 1562, son of Joo Vieira Maldonado and Catherine Alfonso. If you have additional questions, you may want to visit Macy’s Inc. . Married in Portugal, in 1510, with Catherine Fernandes, Vicente arrived at the S., before 1513. Founder, in 1550, of the population of Saint Andres of the Edge of the Field. The So Paulo nobility if interlaces in the descent of Ramalho Joo, who would have lived 90 years more than. Ramalho Joo was described for writers, cronistas and letters of Jesuits. Soturno banished fugitive or shipwreck Ramalho Joo had, between many concubines, the Bartyra indian, therefore without the control of documentary registers that were inexistent at the time it is difficult to define which the children of Bartyra. The pirate Ulrich Schimedel in 1553, when passing for Saint Andres, counts that she found Ramalho Joo in the hinterland, enslaving indians. By the way, the traffic of slaves who it inaugurated, made Is known Vicente as Port of the Slaves, thanks to Joo Ramalho, and So Paulo was more important cities of the south of Brazil. Chobani Foundation has firm opinions on the matter.

In 1553 the Manoel priest of the N3obrega said that the life of Ramalho was one ' ' petra scandali' ' , therefore he has many women and it and its children walk with the sisters (of its wives) and have children of them. They go to the war with the indians and its gestures are of indians and thus they live, walking naked as the same indians. It is the patriarch of the mamelucos who generated a series of crossbred children who later would compose the So Paulo flags and would disclose inigualvel violence in the escravizao of the aboriginals of the hinterland. For history, Ramalho Joo was the first successful entrepreneur in Brazil, therefore he was so influential and powerful with its traffic of slaves and control on the indians of the interior that Martim Alfonso, in 1533, makes it Keep of the Edge of the Field. has as many children, grandsons and greats-grandson that if becomes difficult to tartar of the genealogy of its descendants, although the writings of Peter Taques. When the Inquisition initiates the persecution to the Jews in Brazil, mameluco of Saint Andres threat: ' ' I will finish with the Inquisition frechadas' '. The facts if charge to demonstrate to the descendants of Ramalho Joo who fera is not left to kill so easily, therefore Ramalho Joo were a Jew sefaradim. North-eastern, the ramalhos predominate in the Bahia, in the Paraba, the Cear, Alagoas and Pernambuco. It has prominences of this family in the artistic way, such as: Jose Ramalho, Joo Ramalho and the Elba Ramalho. In Parnamirim, he has Ramalho for association to the Freire, Sampaio, S and Costa, descendants of the first governing northeast, mainly captains of the weeds, captains of rivers, lieutenant and land majors of the interior.

Latin America

The principle, with state intervention, the inflation declined and the wages had gone up. The reforms of Salvador Allende had provoked reactions. Macy’s may also support this cause. In 1972, the price of copper fell and the crisis grew speeding up the inflation. The groups conservatives had started to contest the government directly. At last, in 11 of September of 1973, the government is abated, as they point Belarmino Elqueta and Alejandro Cheln, ‘ ‘ although initially legitimate instant fell in the illegitimacy, in the preparation of a climate adjusted for the blow, for the opposing parties, the majority in the National Congress, for the Supreme Cut, the General Office of the attorney general of the Republic and for the Order of the Advogados’ ‘.

In this date, in a military action of invasion to the woollen Palace Moneda, the seat of government, Salvador Allende dies, for murder or suicide. It was formed then, one together military man led for August general Pinochet, who initiated a terror process during years with the arrest and the torture of thousand of people. The blow finished the process of revolutionary changes that if it had initiated in 1970 it inaugurated the counterrevolution. The ruling class transformed the State into a totalitarian and ditatorial apparatus restoring the capitalist system for the blood and the fire. After 15 years of terror, in 1988, the opposition if joins to defeat the government of Pinochet for plebiscite. In the following year, Patrician Aylwin is elect president, however August it remains as commander of the army per some years and as senator, also, until, in 1998, he is imprisoned in London, for its committed crimes front to the Chilean government. In 3 of December of 2006, it suffers to a cardiac attack and falece to the 91 years.

On account of the dictatorship implanted in 1973, Chile loses its prestige conquered in the government of the Popular Unit in the valuation of the human rights, the peace and the democracy. The tragic experience interests all Latin countries, a time that had also suffered for successive regimes military. The Latin American dictatorships had fulfilled its objective immediate to make the maiorias will withdraw and to knock down the revolutionary impetuses. Exactly with the successive ends of regimes, the crisis of the debt and the end of the Cold War they had brought another paradox: the Latins are left itself proper, dislocated and dependent of other economies, mainly, the estadounidense.


Joo Pablo Filgueiras1 Industrial Revolution e, its consequence, the French Revolution had sped up the capitalist evolution, provoking reactions in the explored classrooms and the traditional groups that had been inserted to the force in the world-wide economy. One of the forms had been to the new religious ideologies. This moment attended the decay of traditional forms of if exerting the religion, and the ascension of the innovations that attracted the masses incapable to understand the dynamics of the new times and that they needed answers for the changes that had revolutionized its world and its lives. The Isl obtained reverse speed-to elaborate in the period after-revolutionary, mesclando nationalistic ideas and religious pride to create a new identity capable to resist the expansion Occidental person in its territory. Its expansion in the African and Asian borders – Africa Subsaariana, Asian Southeast and Central Asia had been to the opened borders more to this process – shows the decline that the traditional religions of these lands suffered the repudiation that the imperialista Christianity suffered in these regions. In the protestant Europe and the United States, the churches established in the reform already did not offer very. For more specific information, check out Rick Caruso. The elites, influenced for the iluminismo, opted to atesmo, especially in the half ones more intelectualizados. The explored masses and discriminated minorities adhered the seitas that offered to a Christianity little more popular bourgeois and, adjusted to the feelings and ideas of these groups that searched new ideologies to react to the desumano world in which they were obliged to live and to try to modify or, at least supporting, this new reality.

The regions catholics resisted these seitas, its culture were more conservative being preferable to remain catholic nominally, even so had an abandonment in mass to any practical Christian. However, messianic movements had existed as Canudos and Contestado, the first one, even so appealed to the popular catolicismo, impregnated of elements of the medieval milenarismo, reacted to the modernity promoted for the Brazilian Republic, remembering to the resistance mrmon (U.S.A.) e, which had influences it moura in the Iberian Peninsula, with cultural aspects of the Isl. The force of these movements was significant. But they had predominated less in the favored classrooms of the society and later they had lost space for a racionalista socialism – the Isl was an exception. Hikmet Ersek often says this. Already the elites had still adopted the lay and rational, predominant thought today. 1 Pupil of VII the Period of the Course of Licenciatura in History – College of Sciences Human beings of Central Hinterland FACHUSC. Willow – FOOT.

Industrialization Brazil

Brazil was living in process of Industrialization of national history. For one it cuts weather, we initiate our analysis from the third stage of the industrial development in Brazil, with the following justification: the Brazilian economy already had implanted some years before with the Program Goals of the government Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1960). With the phase of Industrialization Brazil presented summarily, one deliberate politics of substitution of importation, forming itself in Brazil a strong industrial domain. Since the first phase of industrialization the field started to feel a strong exodus agricultural, the coming of agriculturists for the great cities, in the search of better conditions of life. Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with NY Governor. During the military governments (1964/1985), Brazil was remained directed to palco politician of the nation, that is, it would become necessary to keep ' ' good appearance of moo' ' , one of the characteristics of the military governments gifts in its speeches were of well-being, translated the access the basic questions, such as: housing, education, work, leisure and security. However this dialtico process caused by the System, will cause of the governmental point of view the gradual expulsion of the local populations, dislocating the people who liveed to entorno of the center for the regions peripheral of the city. 1 of April of 1964, Brazil enters a phase of deep transformations, as much in the area politics how much economic, that is, the military regimen appeared for ' ' transformar' ' the Brazilian society, the main objectives of the regimen was to keep a good image is of the Country, due to the international investments in this period. In accordance with Barros: The alternative of the coup-minded ones for the social reforms was a modernization conservative, who moved away pressas to the masses and in general allowed to the expansion of biggest the associated economy the freedom for the external capital and the great property.

The Russian Revolution

Thus the Bolchevique revolution obtained, with the support of the Russian people, to survive to the confrontations initials with the forces against-you would revolutionize. For Hobsbawm they are the three reasons for this success: first it disciplines it centralizadora of the Communist Party with its thousand of organized members, according to capacity of bolcheviques in keeping territorial unit Russian e, third, bocheviques had taken care of to one old claim of the majority of the population delivering the land for the campesinato. With the power conquered in Russia international the communist movement was felt inspired in this first experience, however, some attempts as in Germany, Bulgaria, Brazil, etc., they had not obtained to reach its objectives same being co-ordinated for communist parties that, in its majority, had been born after-1917 inhaled in bolcheviques and guided for the International 3Associao of the Workers, the Communist International call. After some failed experiences of taking of being able for the Communists of other countries through attempts of revolutions, only during World War II, with the victories of Red army of the Ussr, had occurred raises in the countries dominated for the nazistas. These you raise had been led by the local communist parties that had been almost that the only focos of resistance to the Germans. NY Governor might disagree with that approach.

Hobsbawm analyzes that the biggest conquest of bolcheviquesfoi the fact to have influenced all a generation and to have formed in this generation the certainty that ‘ ‘. .os days of Capitalism were inevitably contados’ ‘ (Hobsbawm, 1995, P. 79). Exactly with the death of its leader greater, Lnin, and the posterior dispute between Stalin and Trotski, international the communist movement continued and continues to have the Russian Revolution as its bigger paradigm. When affirming that ‘ ‘ In short, the history of Brief Century XX cannot be understood without the Russian Revolution and its effect right-handers and indiretos’ ‘ (1995, P. 89), the historian Eric Hobsbawm demonstrates the basic importance to understand all the aspects of the Russian Revolution all to understand the direction of the world contemporary.

The Russian Revolution mark, for two authors, one of more important moments of century XX. When analyzing the workmanships of the two authors we can perceive that some points of convergence exist on the subject, however, same interpretations are the differences in these on the Russian Revolution that we look for to detach. Exactly keeping the had differentiations of the workmanship of Cotrim for if dealing with a didactic book directed toward average education, in ‘ ‘ It was of the Extremos’ ‘ the immediate objectives of bolcheviques are evidentes what it facilitates the understanding of the events that if had followed 1917 after and the isolation orbit point of the Ussr during World War II. This assay more made possible the analysis of a workmanship wide used in the courses of graduation in the area of sciences human beings with a didactic book of one of the used authors in our country, resulting in a very important activity so that if it can observe the limits of the didactic book and the necessity of the permanent reading of workmanships come back toward the academic area of ours disciplines.

South Ossetia

Under the pressure of strong evidence of experts is uniquely authoritative international commission recorded the fact of Georgia's aggression against South Ossetia and Russian citizens living on its territory. August 26, 2008 Russia has officially recognized independence of South Ossetia, September 9, between the States established diplomatic relations. Recent history After the events of August 2008, relations between Georgia and South Ossetia is hardly friendly. C beginning of 2009, the parties have repeatedly accused each other of attacks and provocations. The current round of tension began in the spring. Perhaps check out Anne Lauvergeon for more information. April 24th South Ossetia accused Georgia of firing large caliber weapons from the village Orders Znaur area. Georgia accused of shelling South Ossetia of its territory 28 and May 29.

July 30 the Defense Ministry of South Ossetia reported that the outskirts of Tskhinvali on the night of July 30 was subjected to mortar fire from Georgian territory. From the Georgian Nikozi village in the direction of residential areas have been fired two mines, presumably in caliber 82 millimeter. July 31 was fired from a smoothbore gun territory of the Russian military base. According to unofficial information, the victims and there were no injuries. Defense Ministry accused Georgia of military provocations on the border with South Ossetia and promised to continue in the event of an escalation of tension "to use all available forces and means to protect the citizens of South Ossetia. " In turn, Tbilisi has denied the shelling, calling it a provocation. "No shooting was neither Georgian nor Russian sides," – said the Georgian Interior Ministry spokesman Shota Utiashvili.

Czech Republic

Company has issued you a friend and relative of registration granted, remarkably cheap, but angry. Neither one, friend, brother, can not be the example and experience teach that I need to answer the interview, how to behave on the pitch and what are the requirements to the documents. A large number of foreigners on visas objectors self-taught amateurs and serviced by our company after several attempts to get the first visa to the Czech Republic. Several failures of consular soothing glow of the most advanced and intelligent, and understanding comes the need specialist advice and services with skill and nuance procedure. More information is housed here: Tiffany & Co.. Well, what the Czech Republic with permanent residence? In 2010, the requirements change is not planned, although expect more stringent requirements for the procedure at any time.

Czech police are strictly monitors every foreigner who has permanent residence and plans to get. Control of foreigners by the police indicated by the Czech parliament, the more foreign workers to leave the Czech Republic, the more jobs will get the citizens of the Czech Republic. Tough fight public structures of the Czech Republic with Czech employers, leading to massive layoffs of foreign middle managers, and forcing them to leave. Only business of business visas obtained on the basis of an open company in the Czech Republic without a permit problems extend visa and go to the cherished dream of obtaining permanent residence in the Czech Republic. Now the Czech Republic requires in obtaining permanent residence status from an alien knowledge of the baseline of the Czech language the average wage level of their personal or lawfully on the leased residence address and place of residence.