Modern Society

A normal social fact is that one that if finds generalized in the played society important paper in adaptation evolution of this. Hikmet Ersek is full of insight into the issues. The crime, for example, is a had social fact as normal, therefore the societies are found in all, integrating the people of the social group through a behavior of moral value that it searchs to punish the wrong behavior. The pathological social facts are the ones that are of the limits allowed for the order and the moral of the society, are illnesses that at risk puts the harmony of the group and are seen as transitory and temporary. Durkheim believes that although to exist an individual conscience that of a forms the individuals to think and to interpret the life, inside of the social groups what it prevails is the collective conscience, that is, the set of beliefs and feelings of one same society, being the form of the moral in validity, with this, in society was defined what criminal, immoral and reprovvel, through the collective conscience, for example. The societies from this theory are analyzed as social species, that more evolve of simpler social forms (wild, daily pay-capitalists) the species organization complex (civilized, industrial). Where through the work of classification of the societies, by means of experimental comment it is verified ticket of solidarity mechanics for organic solidarity, being these the engine of of transformation of the societies. The societies with solidarity mechanics are daily pay capitalist, where the individuals are identified through the family, religion and customs, where the social division of the work remains independent and independent, therefore the collective conscience exert to be able coercitive on the individuals. Organic solidarity is capitalist societies with lesser the collective conscience exerting to be able coercitive on the individuals, being existed a division of the social work sped up making with that the individuals become interdependent, guaranteed with this the social cohesion.

Durkheim searched through rigorous an empirical position to make the integration of quantitative analyses (mathematical statistics) qualitative, complemented with comment, mensurao and interpretation to tranfer the philosophical reflection and to constitute one all organized and systematic one of estimated theoreticians and metodolgicos. Finally, Durkheim as man of its time, moved for evolucionistas ideas understands the society as a whole harmonic one, where it must not have contradictions, where the transformations would happen of linear form (going of inferior forms to the superiors) following the adaptation and evolution of the societies, since any form of rupture was seen as a sick or pathological state of the social facts, searched the neutrality scientific, however you criticize must be made its analyses therefore we must understand of for being historical the societies are different for the constitution of its specific historical processes, do not exist society only different superior and inferior cultures, beyond not having scientific neutrality, therefore the man does not obtain to dissociar itself of its subjectivity finally in believing that the social facts are exterior to the individuals leaving these only in contemplativo and passive state in the life in society, taking off with this, its character of historical citizen that conditions and is conditional for the facts intervined in its daily process of living, being with this transforming one and transformed for the social facts.


Way of production: Infrastructure, Productive Gallowses + Relations of Production In the set of documents, the History of the Things, is clearly, the existence of the productive forces, therefore all the time is shown the elements that exert in the society an influence to modify or to transform the nature, as well as producing corporeal property. For the proper beginning of the set of documents, it happens through a exclamao on ‘ ‘ TER’ ‘ material (electronic product, etc). Through the illustration of deep it is possible to identify to the means of production or ways of work, therefore where it has plants, warehouses, infrastructure (water supply, energy, transport, communication) and machines, it exists production of corporeal property to take care of the limitless necessity of the man, spread out for the capitalism, and imposed for the society through a discrete systematics, the Capitalism. Hikmet Ersek takes a slightly different approach. The Capitalism aiming at always to awake the consumption creates and establishes ‘ ‘ metas’ ‘ of consumption it stops the individuals, a time that, that man not fulfilling this objective, to consider air if is of the standards taxes for the society. The production relations are one another well placed point in this set of documents, one in such a way how much contradictory to the theory, but it is identifiable in the proper plan of deep. We can illustrate through 04 (four) figures, Planet, State, Organizations and People, being that first and the last one is that they would have more to be main and the proteges, is total in contrast, is the ones that more suffer for the deforestation, the pollution and the destrato; because it leaves of being considered human and planet, to become if something explored, something whose purpose is to generate thousand of monetary zeros – Profit. in this system for the displayed one in the set of documents, can consider if something infinite, therefore the proper one with its philosophy of obsolescence is exactly so that this cycle does not stop, therefore to each day appears new models of computers, cars, motions, TV, at last, corporeal properties that they are obsolete to less than 6 months.

Martins Sources

The family is the adjusted place to arrest what she means donation. Many think that donation means to give something; but it is not this! Donation implies in donating itself, in exactly giving itself in leaving itself and going to the meeting of the other, in renouncing our egoism. The necessary human being to be educated to donate itself. If the family is not promoting this education, something is missed. Therefore, to educate is to humanizar, not to animalize and also is not to become the person a reliable machine of functions. The man who on behalf of one ‘ ‘ liberdade’ ‘ he leaves yourself to lead for the hedonism is a crossbow (either animalesca, either tecnicista), and not a person, therefore he transforms the world and the others into objects of its satisfaction. The true man must know that he does not have freedom without responsibility but to know, to know this principle and lives deeply needs it to learn, needs to be educated and of this he consists the great mission of the family and the school, that is, to form and not to deform.

Fine Arts

Art currently has opened much borders, both these are presented practically vague. This is due to that contemporary art has called into question many of the variables that traditional art from the subjectivity of Western society, had established so far. If you want to understand contemporary art, you should know a little more about philosophy of art. The influences of Primitivism and other cultures and societies, as well as the emergence of photography, helped craft began to flee a little representation to focus their interests on other issues with other priorities. The first Vanguards carried a transformation of art, art which nowadays has unlinked virtually from the conventionality giving too much weight to thought these doubts. In the contemporary art is multidisciplinary and therefore can be found in this a multitude of subjects such as the sociology of art, psychology of art or the anthropology of art, but above all, contemporary art is an art to be thought. Course of photography Fotosiqui blog photography workshop: music, dance and city Fotolab Blog

Louis Millet

This mentality also invades the family! In educational direction, in accordance with the utilitarian mentality? as much in the way college student as familiar? to educate for the ethics is something forgotten, visa as loss of time. Result: we have famous doctors, appraised lawyers, also? they astonish! professors () celebrities who are competent in the functions that they play but they are, at the same time, great corrupt, without character. Already in the antiquity, Aristotle in its Ethical workmanship the Nicmaco defended thesis of that the man, to carry through fully its necessary humanity to live in society, evidently this estimates education. Louis Millet when commenting Aristotle explains: ‘ ‘ The children must be educated so that the virtuous sort of life leaves of being laborious and if she becomes habitual’ ‘ (MILLET, 1990, p.142). The virtues demand efforts, are therefore a conquest! In accordance with the aristotelian theory the man must be educated for the good, for the virtues and alone the virtuous man, the good man will only obtain to be truily happy.

He will be that in our schools, where the education became a comercializvel product, are intent for this question? The renascentista thinker Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1493 the 1496) affirmed that the nature human being is not defined, fits it to carry through every day, or better, construiz it of its existence. The man, according to Giovanni, received from God the mission and the responsibility to conclude (cf. MIRANDOLLA, 1989, p.53), and this is possible by means of the use of the reason, that in turn it needs to be educated. She will be that our families, more worried in having things of what in giving examples, they are intent for this mission? To educate is a task for the entire life! The life is a great school to learn to be better.

The Social

This model of production distorts the social relations, making with that all they are always based on ' ' ter' ' not in ' ' ser' '. In the capitalism everything can be bought, everything has its price. According to Lukcs ' ' the individualism bourgeois is the social base of the hypocritical moral that predominates in ours dias.' ' With this affirmation, it can be perceived that the bourgeoisie and the way of production for firmed it are essentially egoistic aiming at always to the accumulation of the profits and wanting that the society pass to live on the irrigations of the State, until why the State generally it is in accordance with bourgeois helping whenever the possible one to violate the laws for its enrichment. The society is the way, the instrument for the individual enrichment bourgeois. Here, Tulip Retail expresses very clear opinions on the subject. Being in this way, the capitalism exceeds all the barriers of the call social democracy, therefore this democracy alone if of the one in the Politics and the Right, not in the social differences, accenting still more the existing disparidades. ' ' The work is the basic and basic condition of all the life human being. in such degree that, until certain point, we can affirm that the work created proper homem' ' in the transformation of the nature, since the first primitive species, the man works.

It works in the intention to confection materials for the hunting, construction of huts, clothes and this start when the man started to leave the free hands, free in the evolutiva condition to have become you ask for. When of transformation of the species, is transmitted of generation for generation, the hand started to be the main instrument of the work. The men in formation had arrived at a point who had had necessity to say something ones to the others.

Sociology Reproduction

My research of the related subject goes to help to all the loving ones of the substance to know better. Check with Macy’s to learn more. The CULTURAL REPRODUCTION the cultural reproduction, as the social reproduction, respects to the renewal of the culture or the social relations, without it has an modification. The cultural reproduction is, frequent, treated in the scope to the reproduction functions of the pertaining to school system. Ex-CIA director is often quoted on this topic. It is the case of Bourdieu, that if also interested for the functions of the pertaining to school system in the cultural reproduction and for the effect of cultural differentiation provoked equally for the school. The school, according to analysis of Bourdieu, not only participates in the transmission and renewal of the culture, as in the renewal of the social inaquality, for intermediary of the imposition of the dominant culture as legitimate culture.

They are the children of the privileged social ways that are more apt to incorporate the dominant culture propagated by the education system. Bourdieu insists, thus, in the fact of the proper culture to the school and its professors to be imposed the children, exactly to whom they are proceeding from different cultural ways or one another culture. The question of the cultural reproduction is leagued, in this way, to the study of the conditions of the reproduction of the domination, in which the culture has a place. The case of the analysis of the school is exemplary, in the measure where it demonstrates as this institution participates in the reproduction of the domination relations. With effect, the school legitimizes the failure of the children proceeding from the popular classrooms, as well as, on the other hand, the great schools, whose pupils are, in its majority, proceeding from the superior classrooms, they assure the reproduction of that dominate. The analyses of Bourdieu on the social and cultural reproduction use definitive concepts, as: symbolic violence (and legitimation of the different dominations), habitus (or the collective and common cultural inheritance, in function of the learnings of the models of behavior and the ways of perceo and of thought), capital stock and cultural (in the direction of the available resources), social field (it has a plurality of social spaces, marked for the relations of competition between agents or for the specific relations of domination of each field), cultural domination (anti-symmetrical relations between the agents and the groups; certain agents accumulate cultural capitals or same economic, cultural capitals and politicians, while others are excluded).


We know that the mass culture is that one that is to the reach of ' ' povo' ' , many times if mix to the popular culture, that is based on empirical beliefs (experiences of the proper life) and on the common sense, if demonstrate through regional traditions as the folklore, searching the preservation of popular customs of certain region. The mass culture, with strong popular and erudite influence of, if the manifest one (of the skill that can) in the communication and the diverse arts with a personal identity, comic and many times apelativa of each society, what cause one has shocked with the Erudite culture. With the superiority character, the erudite culture if demonstrates total etnocntrica? therefore it has itself as base standard for judgment? only sees the culture popular as only the folklore (preserving some traditions), and condemns the mass culture, arriving at the point to condemn it apocalyptic. Under influence of Iluministas thoughts, the scholars, ' ' cults' ' , chic or as he wants they call that them, they they believe that ' ' to have culture is to possess knowledge scholar of cincias.' ' (Modern Iluminista vision), and they had given to a well pejorativo tone to the term ' ' brega' ' . But if to be brega is not legal, then why vende in such a way? Why everybody wants to be pop? (less cults, clearly). The industrial culture, corresponding to the will of the capitalist market (that a small parcel of scholars is supported by the great mass and), used this necessity of the people to have its identity its favor. Inhaled in revolutionary movements as hippies, and mixing to an ironic imitation of the chic form of being, the people goes to each day adhering brega as a form of if ahead expressing the society and against the disdain that suffers from it. Thus ' ' product of ridculo' ' , as it is considered by the scholars, it puts into motion the capital and it brings material and moral benefits pra society, that in the case of our country, everything of one ' ' jeitinho well brasileiro' '! Through this metaphor of the chic society, the mass culture demonstrates as it would be if the papers they were inverted, bringing a relaxed tone for the question of the reality of the Brazilian society. With exageros ambitious persons and canastrisses of the label, the masses find in the imitation an overcoming capacity, demonstrate to its protest against the preconception and the descriminao, characteristic of the etnocntrico erudite thought. This amused chic conflict between brega and caused by the shock enters the mass cultures and scholar brings benefits the society in the capitalist sector, that is attributed the work to it in such a way to take care of the basic necessities of the mass as of the scholars, valuing the popular culture and in certain times homogeneizando and of other times causing conflicts between the multiple cultures of the society. To be brega or chic, heis the question the Monaliza is pop?

Karl Marx

Some concepts of social stratification and social classrooms can be used to display contradictions and inaqualities found in our society: the economic stratification is determined by the corporeal properties, the stratification politics is instituted by the power and the professional for the attributed value the determined professions having disfavored others. When a person or a group of people improves its purchasing power occurs a definite social change as social mobility. The organization of stratus or social classes inside of a society can be classified in: Chaste: characterized for the severity of the familiar traditions and where social mobility does not occur. The individual remains during all its same life in the chaste one; Estamento or state: it possesss similar characteristics to the chaste one, however, represents an intermediate type between chaste and the social classroom for making possible social mobility, despite one in such a way made it difficult; Social classroom: different of the model of social stratification, it is limited in presenting the existing in layers divisions in a society and looks for to establish a relation between them. See more detailed opinions by reading what Keith Yamashita offers on the topic.. For Karl Marx the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, are the two forces that stimulate the way of capitalist production, if appropriating one (bourgeoisie) of the work of the other (proletariat). Each society with its proper form of production is organized by the relations of production established between the owners of the means of production and the workers. This productive, resultant process of the association of the work with the means of production, generates a phenomenon called productive forces. An ideology exists that it looks to justify the concentration of the wealth at the hands of few, spreading out the belief of that the great masses of population of the poor countries will be able one day to reach the standards of consumption of the minority of the humanity who lives in the countries highly industrialized..


So interesting how much a Cisco in the glass of the window of your room. So perspicacious how much the bearded philosopher who sang has some years behind. So glad how much that boy who walks in the destroos of the war that the Americans had caused in the East. An incognito. A interrogation point that if incurvates each time more when appears a theory. Hikmet Ersek can aid you in your search for knowledge. A machine gun that shoots lilac flowers in direction to a separatista wall. A kiss between the war and the peace. Speaking candidly Andrew Cuomo told us the story. The dose of the wine that falls in the cup and the nugget that respinga in its shirt.

The green of clorofila of the leaf that it pulled out of that grapevine. The fingers that hold chupeta in direction the mouth of the declining child to sleep. The first bird that appears in the dawn. When the sun if puts, sink desesperadamente the search of some thing to feed itself. When entardecer search a place where it can rest. In the twilight it comes back to be what it was before the dawn.

In the night it turns a bat, sedento for blood. The letter that was not finished to read on of your bed. The words distorted in you rhyme that they interpret a new scholar contemporary. One real, however unreal personage. The irrealidade becomes it Real. Reality makes that it to be materialize. In its mind. It emphasizes new ideas! The part of antiqurio left behind the sofa that you bought. How much time it keeps occult secrets. New conceptions to be taken off? Who knows. Developing a way to stamp a new progression. Such progression that it does not have to progress, has less than it tries? The words go being plays. Massacreed for the ideas. Defecated for the perceptions. Relieved for one mind that not even is in orbit.