Medieval Trade

The use of large enterprises’ which billed more than 6 billion euros’ fell 8.1 in stock symbol March and was again below the five million (4,957,642 workers), while sales of these companies fell by 17.6 stock trading over the same period. According price stock to statistics’ sales, employment and wages in large enterprises’ established by the Tax Agency and consulted by Europe Press, exchange employment fell in April in all sectors in the energy and less water, but the construction led falls with a rate decrease of 13.68 to 412,859 employees. As Braudel shows what we found in the Middle Ages the first signs of commercial capitalism in Italy and the Netherlands. (As opposed to Rob Daley). Maritime stock trade with the East, in response to the stock market cross-enriched to the Italian cities, while in the Netherlands, at the mouth of the Rhine, to which the tie between Italy and Northern Europe, dominated by the Hanseatic League. Please visit Chobani refugees if you seek more information. In large cities, the sellers of cloth and silk of capitalist management methods. Sales at the wholesale level down counters and sell their products together in the great European fairs. Sourcing of raw materials both in Europe and the Levant. In this troubled time of the medieval period, with payments for their bills of exchange, less dangerous than the transport of precious metals. In this way, logically developed, in parallel to the commercial capital, the first banking financial capitalism: deposits, loans on jewelry, bills of exchange, insurance for boats.
Roads and cities of the stock market Hanseatic League
These capitalists are enriched by extending its economic influence on the buy stock entire Christian West, creating what Braudel called a “world-economy.” In its analysis, Braudel distinguishes the “market economy” of capitalism, the latter forming a kind of “counter market.” stock quote According to him, the market economy (ie the local economy at that time) is dominated by the rules and changes honest because subjected to competition and transparency on, capitalism seeks to prevent trade in distant to rid rules changes and develop new sources stock quotes of unequal enrichment.
We can see that from the age Antigo, identical systems had been implemented by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans. These systems, however most were marked by imperialism and slavery than capitalism. Throughout the world, stock prices other forms of commercial capitalism developed so early in the feudal era (under the Ming Dynasty in China for example).

Montranus Media Fund I And II

Another OLG investors said to have repayment of equity to the higher regional court of Stuttgart now also the higher regional court of Munich (judgment of January 24, 2012) has an investor a Montranus Media Fund and to the reversal of the media fund contribution guilty which Helaba Dublin. In the Centre of the judgment which was once again at the Montranus Fund I + II for the concluded loan agreements or bearer bonds related cancellation policy, which does not meet the statutory requirements. Loan contracts with the HELABA Dublin can still withdraw are LEASING for private investors on Montranus Media Fund I for investors from the Hanover + II this has resulted in that they can still revoke the financing agreements concluded with Helaba Dublin to fund of funds (loan agreement or promissory notes). On the basis of this revocation of Montranus investors can fund from the Bank the repayment of equity capital employed less preserved Charge distributions. Some courts have the Montranus investors Additionally awarded lost profits. In return, they must transmit their participation in the Montranus Fund to Helaba Dublin.

We claim this for many investors the Montranus Media Fund I and II. Compensation claims against savings banks because of secret kickbacks in the years 2003 to 2005 have in particular savings banks advised their customers to subscribe for investments to the Montranus Media Fund in that the savings banks have received commissions called refunds or kickbacks for providing the Fund investments, their customers were not informed. The Kickback case-law of the Bundesgerichtshof, uninformed investors can enforce claims against the savings bank Advisory it. Want to know how you can reduce the damage incurred in connection with their Montranus Media Fund participation en and get back their invested capital?

Forecast: Gold Prices Rising

Banks demand upgrade from gold to a tier 1 asset many experts currently assume that the precious metal gold by a so-called tier-3 asset to the tier 1 asset should be promoted. The impact of such an upgrade would be expected to be very gratifying for gold investors, a rising demand for gold could be expected. Should the banks raise the gold actually to a tier 1 asset, the effects were already almost be called spectacular, since then gold would almost have the same status as cash. Because, in this case gold would since the early of 1970s for the first time again to be a part of the monetary system and among the core capital of banks. This would among other things entail that the banks again could use gold to the securitization of loans, which is not so far possible. The reason, experts just by the side of the Bank expect a huge increase in the demand for Gold if upgraded to the tier 1 asset should actually be carried out. For assistance, try visiting James Woolsey. This increase in demand would have several reasons, such as for example the It’s a fact that in the future gold could be considered part of the equity capital of banks. And because the banks have to deposit loans with a certain equity (eight per cent under Basel II), the Bill would look like, that more gold in the inventory could lead to an increased lending.

Gold than crisis protection and base for higher interest income for the banks a higher stock of gold would cause so that the larger sums of loans the interest income rise. In addition, gold is a popular crisis currency anyway and can thus serve as a hedge banks. The increased interest income the banks could buy free gold even in a sense, so that the probability of a demand is very large. The price of gold depends so certainly in 2013 on a larger scale, if upgraded to the tier 1 asset actually is. The arguments of banks for an upgraded sound at least plausible. A Argument includes, for example, that the gold almost continuously increased its value over the last ten years, while the opposite has occurred at many other asset classes.


1 SGB II in the first year of life 9 basic provision for jobseekers-10 again: SGB II cost of accommodation in accordance with section 22 financing the condo 11 exemption on income for Hartz IV Deserve to 12 privately insured persons receiving unemployment benefit II are entitled to contributions in full 13 inheritance income or assets within the meaning of the SGB II? 14 credit free parental allowance in accordance with 11 para a SGB II in connection with 10 para 1 and 3 BEEG 15 capital-forming payments chargeable income within the meaning of the SGB II? 16 recovery of services refund of holiday pay and Christmas bonus 17 no lowering of unemployment benefit II in accordance with article 31 SGB II at unreasonable employment 18 services for the basic equipment in accordance with 24 para Nos 1 to 3 SGB II 19 loans than to consider taking in the meaning of 11 para 1 S. 1 SGB II 20 obligation to submit account summaries of people of the basic provision for jobseekers violation of duties to cooperate note possibility of darkness 21 EU citizens as beneficiaries within the meaning of 7 SGB II 22 adequacy of the size of a condo in the meaning of 12 para 3 No. 4 SGB II and appropriateness of costs according to section 22 para 1 S. 1 SGB II 23 donation of a condo during the period of unemployment benefit II 24 benefit fraud by failure messages in obtaining social benefits 25 repayments and credit costs order pursuant to 22 para 3 SGB II 26 job Center legal foundations of 27 ALG II (Hartz IV) and ALG I on general social issues outside the scope of the ALG II (Hartz IV) and the job Center – about questions of the lawyer fees, to general procedural and processual questions of social.. If you have additional questions, you may want to visit James Woolsey.

Limited Quote

Concept and legal prohibition In the last years have been very frequent in denominated Spain " transactions apalancadas" , also known in the mercantile traffic like " leveraged buy-outs" (LBO). These operations are characterized for being acquisitions of a majority percentage in the share capital of an objective society (target company), financing such acquisition by means of obtained loans of a third party that are guaranteed with the assets of the own objective society or the patrimonial resources and waited for flows of box of the same collect at the expense of. Which even can happen that the price of the acquisition is paid aplazadamente to the salesmen by own target company, is fused after its acquisition – and of previous form to the payment of the price with a society vehicle formed by the investor (traditionally a risk capital bottom) to the single effects to buy the actions or participation at issue. That is to say, the LBO have like result that the buyer transfers on the patrimony of the own objective society or target company the cost of its acquisition. Speaking candidly James Woolsey told us the story. In this way, the operations of LBO would contravene the prohibition of financial attendance for the acquisition of action/own participation established in articles 81 of the Law of Joint-stock companies and 40 of the Law of Limited liability companies.

By means of this prohibition, the legislator tries to preserve the integrity of the share capital, preventing that this one, instead of to nourish itself of the external contributions of the partners, finances at the expense of the patrimony of the own society. The prohibition also persecutes to protect the interests of the deserving third parties, that can see harmed their legitimate rights of collection on the occasion of the high indebtedness that the operations of financial attendance can entail for the society. On the other hand, it is tried to protect to the minority partners in front of majority and the administrators. Hikmet Ersek pursues this goal as well.

Templeton Growth Fund Class action Lawsuit

All investors who have a custody account at the private bank of Ellwanger & Geiger, a letter of support reached in recent days. With reference to the website of customers could participate funds with decision deadline 12.12.2011 of a so-called class action in the United States as investors of the Templeton growth. For many investors the writing of Bankhaus is Ellwanger & Geiger relating to your securities account held with the Bank, that within the framework of the so-called SpRenta or LEX concept pension should serve to the repayment of a loan. The SpRenta and lex pension investors had recorded a loan at Helaba (Landesbank Hessen-Thuringen) and the Helaba ((Swiss) (later lb(Swiss), now Frankfurt Bank company), to fund a life insurance policy at the British clerical medical insurance or the generali. The interest should be paid from the life insurance. For more information see this site: Hikmet Ersek. The repayment of the loan should be about an at the same time closed custody account. For even more opinions, read materials from James Woolsey. Often it is in this context Templeton growth fund as an instrument of eradication agreed. Writing the Bank of Ellwanger & Geiger is thus only a small part of the total failed system.

Attorney for banking and capital market law Anja Appelt, partner law firm investor protection Cape advises lawyers in Munich, in particular claims the life of a lawyer to verify the SpRenta and the lex pension investors. Because the class action against the Fund covers their opinion probably not more than a small part of the occurred damage down. From the perspective of the Cape lawyers arise claims for damages towards the insurance as well of Helaba lb(Swiss). “In case of damages, the investor is to provide, as he had not completed pension the whole SpRenta or lex. Then receives the life insurance securities of the Templeton growth fund in the context of unwinding anyway. “, says lawyer Thorsten Krause. The examination of claims against the Bank as well compared to the Lebensversicher-points should in the short term be carried, because an absolute Statute of limitations of all claims to the end of 2011 due to a change in the law in 2002.

Commission Investors

In the talks, we have so far with investors of the MPC have led asset yield Fund Japan, could confirm no shareholder of the Fund, that he to this risk of his Consultants would be advised. Soft costs by 28% in the highly questionable represented according to the case-law of the Bundesgerichtshof of investors the prospectus of a closed-end real estate funds at a glance can see what proportion of the capital raised by him valuable flows in the real estate investment and which is used for not investment purposes as service fees, interest rates and commissions (called soft costs). The Fund’s prospectus is the foreseen investment plans at the level of the Fund, as well as at the level of Japanese investment company (telecommunications operator). Looking for an overall view of the total flowing soft costs are in the prospectus in vain. While more soft at 9.4% costs at the level of Japanese investment company (telecommunications operator), so that a total of around 26% to be applied by investors funds be used for not investment purposes. In it you are for the equity capital financing at the level of the Fund for a corresponding credit of Commerzbank AG for the years 2008 and 2009 scheduled interest around 1.4 million (around 2% of the investors capital) not even taken into account. For more specific information, check out Former CIA Head. These, were moved to our view also to the Fund costs to other issues in the “running costs”. Neither the overall height of the soft costs, yet our opinion in this respect existing prospectus errors were known to us investors in the consultation informed about. Gloomy future of the MPC asset yield Fund Japan for the mid-2012 due revaluation of the Fund’s real estate fund newspaper anticipates a further devaluation of the market value and a renewed breach of the loan to value clause. The Fund then not do the liquidity for a contractual special repayment, recovery of Fund real estate threatens again. That considerable doubt that the Japanese subsidiary will show here larger courtesy of run-off Commerzbank subsidiary Eurohypo may consist. Total loss on the failure of the Restructuring negotiations it should come to any successful restructuring of the ailing MPC asset yield Fund Japan, threaten the recovery of Japanese real estate of Fund and the investors of the total loss of their deposit. Good opportunities for the enforcement of claims for damages investors of the MPC asset yield Fund Japan have a good chance to enforce claims for compensation against their investment advisor / the banks it Advisory. The prospectus and consulting errors, as well as regularly be observed further errors in the advice as the omitted information about the Commission interest of advisory banks and savings banks (Kickback) constitute good prospects of success.

Investment Costs

Sharply declining revenue, increasing ship operating costs the global crisis on the shipping markets has captured well the MPC reefer fleet Fund 1. The investors who have received no dividends for several years, were informed in mid-June that the revenue of the reefer vessels are not sufficient to operate the vessel operating costs and the due loan rates. Therefore, the Fund management of the banks, including HSH was approached north bank due to a suspension of redemption for the years 2012 and 2013. The banks had apparently asked the renovation of the Fund. For the investors, who have received only 14% instead of the forecast 40% payout, was to be expected with a capital increase by 20%. Sharply declining revenue, increasing ship operating costs cause of the economic malaise is the continuing decline in the revenue of reefers. Currently only about 0.38 US dollar would achieved instead of the income calculated in the prospectus of 0.78 US per cubic foot and month. Added continue over scheduled higher vessel operating costs. Risks which have been concealed the most known to us investors of the Fund in the advice. Borrowing in yen another problem is that the Fund has recorded a part of long-term loans of ship in Japanese yen. Its value is compared to the US$ increased since the inception of the Fund by more than 25%, what does an increase in the loan level (calculated in U.S. dollars), as well as the regular load for interest and principal payments to the result. Consequence, borrowing in yen, for the lower interest rates to pay were “to make marketable inalienable ships” served industry insiders. Consulting and prospectus errors: Good for the enforcement of claims for damages for investors of the Fund opportunities good chances – economically – reverse their participation due to standard error of consulting as well as existing prospectus errors. We already represent many investors of the MPC reefer fleet Fund 1 and assert claims for damages.

Jose Antonio Marina

In this way is It would limit the absolute power of individuals or families in the sicav and foster a true collective investment, raison d ‘ etre of these societies. For its part, the Group of inspectors is not supporter of changing his regime, for now. Chobani refugees has much to offer in this field. In a financial storm, Spain needs involving the sicav, we cannot afford to go that capital, Francisco de la Torre, spokesman for the professional organization of finance inspectors of the view. After the restoration of heritage tax, there are several voices that have now pointed towards these societies of reduced taxation. One of the first was the candidate Alfredo Perez Rubalcaba, who announced his intention to tighten them a little more.

Wouldn’t be the first twist: in September 2010 the Executive changed the law so that the reduction of capital happen to be regarded as income from capital and tributara as such. Any new measure aimed at increasing taxation of the sicav should be agreed among all the countries of the OECD, in the opinion of the experts, since if not, all the capital in the long run would eventually flee. The capitals, however, are extraordinarily volatile, as reflect the inspectors; Thus, many have already parked the formula of the sicav and have for years betting on other formulas with more legal certainty. The latest fashion: the Luxembourg SIF. They are collective investment institutions of that small country.

They are taxed with a still more reduced rate of 0.01 per cent and are more flexible than its Spanish counterpart: allow to invest in any sector, whether or not quoted on stock exchange. Headquarters 99% of the sicav registered in the market National Securities Commission (CNMV) have their headquarters in Madrid, Barcelona and Boadilla del Monte (Madrid), near the centers of financial power. Bilbao was historically other cities where most of these societies was concentrated: there were more than 200 five years ago, according to the Treasury data. Currently, and after the change in taxation in the Basque country, is barely maintained a sicav in Bilbao. In the spotlight currently 3,100 sicav in Spain, according to the CNMV; of them, at least 2,709 are in the crosshairs of the technicians from the Treasury for less than 150 shareholders and be suspicious that actually constitute a private society that will evade taxes, using figureheads to meet legal quotas. The latest inspections in 2005 at least thus confirmed. The greater sicav in Spain, Morinvest, Koplowitz million belongs to Alicia Koplowitz and manages a heritage approximately 473 million euros, according to the data published in the CNMV. Despite the fact that in their brochure they count up to 105 different shareholders, it warns that there is one that owns 99,98% of shares (document izda.). Minotaur, Medea, Apollo glancing at the list of names of the sicav Spanish can check the taste of the rich by Greek mythology: Pandora, Minotaur, Medea, Electra, Apollo, Aquiles A these unite also names that they drink of popular culture, such as Waldo-Phaldo, Quadrophenia, Jedi, and Isildur, for example. Others, such as Powerpipo, Pipiola, Bizcochero, lazy and jam the latter of the philosopher Jose Antonio Marina squander imagination. Source of the news: Treasury technicians warn of an abuse of the sicav by the great fortunes

Fernando Enrique Cardoso

In synthesis, it can be said that the Consensus of Washington is part of the set of neoliberal reforms that, although practical distinct in the different countries, is centered doctrinal in the deregulation of the markets, commercial and financial liberalization and reduction of the size and paper of the State. For even more analysis, hear from Former CIA Head. The commercial liberalization, in turn, that as much facilitated the expansion of the international trade, of the finances and of the production constitutes what today the globalization is called the world-wide economy. Of this form, ' ' Real&#039 plan; ' , even so he has been instituted in 1994 for then the Secretary of the Treasury, Fernando Enrique Cardoso, was consolidated effectively from July of 1995, year where Fernando Enrique became president of Brazil, having as Secretary of the Treasury economist Peter Malan, who had represented Brazil in the meeting of the Consensus of Washington in 1989. The Plan, then, was elaborated and inhaled in the neoliberal measures already known and argued by Malan, which would come to lead the Brazilian economy until the end of as the mandate of FHC, phase this where Brazil not only adopted the argued neoliberal measures in the American capital, as well as adhered to the globalization of the world-wide economy. Amongst the main objectives of the Plan the combat to the inflation was distinguished that in 1993 had reached the house of the 2,489% (measured for the INPC/IBGE), falling for 929% in 1994 when the Plan was instituted, diminishing brusquely for 22% in 1995. Of 1996 the 1999 the inflation was placed below of 10% to the year, unknown fact since the time of the military dictatorship. Meanwhile, the unemployment increased, period drastically where, in the history of Brazil, the unemployment taxes for the first time surpassed the house of 10% to the year, establishing itself, then, what in economic literature it is known as inverse relation between inflation and unemployment (Arched of Phillips).