Roman Empire

Etimologicamente, the term ' ' mrtir' ' it assigns somebody as witness of a fact, however, this concept was acquiring a new character with passing of the time. Thus, the term ' ' mrtir' ' it evolved more necessarily of its generic characterization passing to be characterized as the certification of that if it believes as truth and for which if cf allows to spill the proper blood (. they ibidem). In its manual concerning the History of the Church, Comby deals with this conceptual change in sufficiently simple way: ' ' Mrtir' ' it evokes that one that dies in way the cruel capital punishments. Governor Cuomo shines more light on the discussion. But it is necessary to remember that this word Greek means ' ' testemunha' '.

Mrtir of the certification of its faith in Jesus, who is the only Gentleman, excluding any another one, even though the emperor. The Christian does not search the martyrdom, much even so this can have occurred. It can run away to the persecution. But when this arrives, of the certification until the end, imitating Jesus even in its passion and its death. Therefore, mrtir if identifies with Jesus. (1993, P. 42). In this direction, to identify itself with the passion of Christ through the martyrdom, in special way in the first centuries, meant to spill the blood on behalf of the faith. As consequncia of this faith, in way to the persecution it Roman Empire if distinguished two types of people: mrtires in fact and the calls confessores of the faith, consisting these in that suffered to persecutions and bad-treatments, but that they were not sacrificed with the death. Still how much to this conceptual evolution, they affirm Latourelle and Fisichella that the reason for which if it gradually passed to this significao semantics constitutes object of theories; what it lacks to evidence is the fact of the distinction that if comes to create between confessores and mrtires.

Persian Supremacy

For about a century after the time of Neemias, the Persian empire exerted control on the Jew. The period was relatively calm, therefore the Persians allowed to the Jews the free exercise of its religious institutions. The Jewish one was directed for the highest point priests, who gave accounts to the Persian government, fact that, at the same time, allowed to the Jews a good measure of autonomy and lowered the priesthood to a function politics. Envy, intrigues and even though murder had had its paper in the disputes for the honor to occupy the supreme priesthood. Joan, son of Joiada (Ne 12:22), is known by having assassinated the proper brother, Joshua, in the enclosure of the temple. The Prsia and Egypt had been become involved in constant conflicts during this period, and the Jew, situated between the two empires, could not escape to the envolvement. During the kingdom of Artaxerxes III many Jews had engaged themselves in a rebellion against the Prsia.

They had been deported for Babilnia and the edges of the sea Cspio. The knowledge of the law under the direction of the Esdras scribe was renewed, who read and interpreted the Holy Writs (Ne: 8: 2,7,8; 8:9,13 – 18) Made rigorous application of the principles of the Law. The cult of the foirenovado temple and the contributions for the sustenance had been demanded. The mixing marriages forbidden (Ne: 10: 30), the convicted Saturday in addition (10: 31) and was established the regular administration of the tenths (Ne: 12: 44). These reforms had left effect lasted until the times of the Macabeus, creating a faithful people the God who resisted the paganismo. Two aspects of the Jewish life had disappeared during the Persian and Greek period: the monarchy and the predictive function. The independence pretensions had been centered in the priesthood and the predictive function findou with Malaquias.

General characteristics of the Persian period. In the end of Malaquias the Jews if still found under the Persian reign and to remain in this situation during practically sixty years of the intertestamentria age. The sacerdotal form of the Jewish government was respected and supreme priest it still received bigger to be able civil beyond its religious crafts, even so had of, of course, giving accounts to the Persian governor of the Syrian. In 2Reis 17:24 – 4, we read that well before, in 721 AC, later destroying the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel and exhausting the Israelis through the cities of the fears, the king of the Assyrian repovoou the cities of Israel with a mixing people who came to be called ‘ ‘ samaritanos’ ‘ , its known territory being as Samaria, the name of the main city, former-capital of Israel.

The Supreme

Nabopolossar, that Babilnia governed during 21 years, of 625-604 B.C., prepared the land on which its son would construct a world-wide empire. Nabucodonozor, ' ' the head of ouro' ' , he was a monarch notable, not only for its conquests, but also for the workmanships that carried through. It built Babel, the capital of the empire, and made of it a huge city, for its dimensions, and sutuosa, for the works of art that sheltered. It lead the politics with firmness and wisdom. Its power was human limitless. As much the imperial government as the religion was directed by it. But also it did not lack a good parcel to it of despostismo.

Its will was the supreme law. It simply it commanded, without having that to consult nobody. The following tickets of Daniel in also give a test to them of its power and of its absolute in power character (Dn.1: 5; 2:46,48; 3:13,19,20). B) – the chest and the arms of silver (w.32-39): The chest and the arms of silver symbolize the empire Fear? Persian. As the others two, the Greek empire and the Roman empire, it not yet existed in the days of Nabucodonozor.

As the name already indicates, and as the two on arms for the chest represent, it is about an empire that went to be formed by the union of two peoples: this empire also is known simply by the name of Persian, therefore the Persians were the part most predominant. In this kingdom already more was noticed the influence of the noblemen and the princes on the king. The law that Dario signed (6: 9) cut was an artifice of the noblemen of its, and the monarch was obliged the cumpriz it against its will. Situations thus could not nor be imagined in the Empire of Nabucodonozor. As well as the silver it is of lesser value that the gold, was lesser authority of the king in this as empire.