Main article: History

Main article: History of Guayaquil Shield colonial city and its government. In the pre-Columbian era, the region of Guayaquil was inhabited by several settlements among whom were many cultures, religions and chiefdoms.These villages consisted of political, military action, and trade with other towns located south in the Peru Current, and northward in the current Mexico, for the rafting, leaning on the structure of the Guayas River. 5 The people who settled near the river were the result of migration that occurred from Mante a culture, these being known as “Keeping the South” or Huancavilca culture. In the last period of the pre-Hispanic era, the period of integration, the Huancavilcas covered most of the present province of Guayas and other neighboring provinces, which also developed other cultures. These cultures were developed independent of others until the Spanish invasion.Shortly after Francisco Pizarro began his conquest of Peru, and in order to colonize and expand northward Spanish domination of the former Inca empire, ordered the founding of the town of Santiago de Quito in 1534, near the present city Riobamba, but shortly after his transfer was ordered elsewhere and this is due to two expions departing. One expeciones then headed north, which later founded in San Francisco de Quito. Meanwhile, another expion turned towards the southwest and reach the coastal region, which are set in various sectors but are driven from them by the indigenous resistance. The foundation of the city was a process in which several Spanish expions tried to settle a colonial town, but due to native resistance was a task too difficult.The first settlement was made in 1534 Belalc zar Sebastian, who came from Paita several explorers and founded a town east of the river Guayas, but chonos destroyed the village and killed nearly half the population. In 1536, by order of Pizarro, Hernando Zaera moved the village near a site named “Yahualica” but because the Spanish armies needed support to the south, Zaera and his army set sail to Peru. Pizarro, again ordered the relocation and reconstruction City Captain Francisco de Orellana and in 1537 the city settled in the butt, current sector in Samborond n Puntilla, then left again to Lima Orellana leaving office as mayor Juan Porcel. In 1541, an alliance between chonos and pun es, besieged the city in clashes that lasted six months.In May 1542 Captain Diego de Urbina, the city moved again and took refuge near the Huancavilcas, west of the Guayas River, however, in 1543 Huancavilcas completely destroyed the city and once again had to move the city to Belalcazar same site was up in 1534. Finally, after the outbreak of civil war between Pizarro and Almagro, the city was founded in its present location on July 25, 1547 under the title of Very Noble and Loyal City Santiago de Guayaquil. Representation of Guayaquil by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala in his “Primer Nueva cronica y buen gobierno”, 1615.In the colonial period, Guayaquil began to grow from Santa Ana and soon after started to become an important commercial center, which the Court maintained its trade links with other parts of the whole South Pacific region, and this added to the abundance of useful wood for construction, the existence of large numbers of individuals seeking work (which cheapened labor) and the strategic location of the port, Guayaquil allowed to become one of the shipyards largest and most important of America in the seventeenth century. Due to the commercial boom that the city kept during his early years, Guayaquil had to endure several pirate attacks. In 1586 the English pirate Thomas Cavendish attacked the city and in the same way the French did Jacques L’Heremite Clerk in 1624. In 1684, William Dampierre and other pirates destroyed much of the city because of the fires that left their attacks.In 1687 French pirates D’Hout, Picard and Groignet began their attacks, which left the city partially destroyed, looted, and its principal buildings burned to the ground. From these events, it was decided to relocate the city, which led to the separation of old city and new city in a process that lasted between 1690 and 1696. Because of the constant transfers, many fires occur and are the pests that would hit the city, leaving hundreds dead. As a preventive measure against the attacks were set up outposts in the hills and the army grew steadily while piracy disappeared. In 1763 the township of Guayaquil became the Government of Guayaquil, and went from being part Viceroyalty of Peru to the Viceroyalty of New Granada. On November 10, 1764 fire called Grande Fire destroyed a large part of the new city, being currently ranked as one of the greatest disasters of Guayaquil.

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